If a particular thing has an existing value before being measured... then a measurement of a different, even far away, thing's value surely can have no effect on the first thing's value.

That idea is thought of as locality.

Einstein illustrated that the predictions of quantum physics implied locality was violated. To him that meant quantum physics was incomplete, something was missing.

He wanted the universe to be intelligible. That, basically, a choice of measurement here shouldn't affect the outcome of a measurement over there.

John Bell, also, wanted the universe to be intelligible. He tried to come up with a proof that might account for the predictions of quantum mechanics while maintaining locality ie somehow entangled behavior of quantum particles was all an artifact of the math, it wasn't actually real.

Or that - as Einstein thought - that would allow for missing information or hidden variables to account for the "spooky action at a distance" of correlated behavior between quantum particles.

He came up with a mechanism to test for the existence of hidden variables, which is what's illustrated in the youtube. Watch it until it sinks in, we're not so dumb

Ask not what is the problem but, rather, where is the lesion.

An extremely simplistic metaphor for entangled particles at a distance would be if you lost your shoes on a wild night.

Years later, you find one of them....the left one.
You instantly know something about the missing one, no matter how far away it is.
It's the right one.

(07-15-2019, 09:13 AM)sparks Wrote: Good example stank! Except how do you know they're your pumps and not mine?☺

exactly.

(Mine have a little bow on top.)

This is an even worse metaphor of the uncertainty principle, but uncertainty is a given. We can even attribute a value to it.
Like, there's a rather precise degree of uncertainty.